What is the movement of the ground?

What is the movement of the ground?

Ground motion is the movement of the earth’s surface from earthquakes or explosions. Ground motion is produced by waves that are generated by sudden slip on a fault or sudden pressure at the explosive source and travel through the earth and along its surface.

What causes the ground to move?

The energy radiates outward from the fault in all directions in the form of seismic waves like ripples on a pond. The seismic waves shake the earth as they move through it, and when the waves reach the earth’s surface, they shake the ground and anything on it, like our houses and us!

What are the types of ground motion?

Four types of ground motions are considered, i.e. (1) one at rock site in near-fault earthquake (near-fault rock motion), (2) one at soil site in near-fault earthquake (near-fault soil motion), (3) one of long-duration at rock site (long-duration rock motion) and (4) one of long-duration at soil site (long-duration …

What measures the movement of the ground?

A seismometer is the internal part of the seismograph , which may be a pendulum or a mass mounted on a spring; however, it is often used synonymously with “seismograph”. Seismographs are instruments used to record the motion of the ground during an earthquake.

What records ground motion?

Seismographs are instruments used to record the motion of the ground during an earthquake.

What is ground or surface rupture?

Surface rupture (or ground rupture, or ground displacement) is the visible offset of the ground surface when an earthquake rupture along a fault affects the Earth’s surface. This is a major risk to any structure that is built across a fault zone that may be active, in addition to any risk from ground shaking.

Why does the ground move up and down?

During a storm the ground becomes saturated with water, reducing the soil’s cohesion. As strong winds move the top of the tree, the force is transferred by the stem, acting as a lever, to the roots and the ground begins to move.

What causes the ground to heave?

Ground heave is most commonly caused by the removal of established trees. As the roots die away and no longer draw water from the soil, the soil retains more water and will swell when wet.

What are the characteristics of ground motion?

2.5. These cover characteristics such as amplitude of motion, frequency content of motion, duration of motion, etc. Loading effect of earthquake ground motion at a site is generally represented by three ground motion (GM) parameters viz. peak ground acceleration, response spectrum and acceleration time history.

How do rock particles move during the passage of AP wave through the rock?

As they travel through rock, the waves move tiny rock particles back and forth — pushing them apart and then back together — in line with the direction the wave is traveling. …

What is seismograph short answer?

Seismographs are instruments used to record the motion of the ground during an earthquake. They are installed in the ground throughout the world and operated as part of a seismographic network.

What is El Centro ground motion?

It was the first major earthquake to be recorded by a strong-motion seismograph located next to a fault rupture. The earthquake was characterized as a typical moderate-sized destructive event with a complex energy release signature.

Where does the movement of groundwater take place?

Nature and Movement of Groundwater The groundwater movement takes place through pore spaces at extremely slow velocity. The flow velocity of groundwater is expressed in metres -1 day. Water percolates from areas of high water table to the areas where water table is lowest i.e., towards lakes and surface streams.

How to mitigate the effects of ground movement?

Ground movement mitigation may involve the deepening of foundation to the soil that does not suffer such movements or construct a type of foundation that is able to take considerable amount of movements without causing structural damages. In this article, various types of ground movements and suitable types of foundations are discussed.

What causes the movement of the ground fill?

Movements due to consolidation of natural material beneath ground fill rely on number of factors such as soil layer composition and thickness. the movement would be considerable in the case of soft clay whereas it slight settlement would occur in the case of dense soil such as sand.

Where does the water in a groundwater source come from?

Groundwater Sources Have Their Origins in the Water Cycle and Are Held in Aquifers Beneath the Ground Surface. An unconfined aquifer is one that does not have a confining layer above it. The top of the saturation point in an unconfined aquifer is called the water table. Pores below the water table are full of water.